How the electrons move around in atoms, molecules, and more complex systems -- this is the central question we try to answer in the Attosecond Theory Junior Research Group (JRG) at Max Planck Center for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS). The motion of the electrons is ultrafast, and therefore the electrons have been viewed as `clouds' surrounding the nuclei. However, the advent of the attosecond laser technology is changing our perspective. Judiciously utilizing the precisely controllable electric fields of intense and ultrashort laser pulses, we may in principle track the motion of the electrons from one instant to the next. Our task is to find out how the information of the electronic motion is imprinted in experimentally measurable quantities. We try to extract the essence of such a relation as a simple and universal formulation based on the analysis of an accurate and unbiased numerical simulation results.
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